Evening News: Optics, Astronomy, and Journalism in Early Modern Europe

Evening News

Evening News by Naomi Murakawa

Author: Eileen Reeves
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014

Professor of Comparative Literature Eileen Reeves examines a web of connections between journalism, optics and astronomy in early modern Europe, devoting particular attention to the ways in which a long-standing association of reportage with covert surveillance and astrological prediction was altered by the near simultaneous emergence of weekly newsheets, the invention of the Dutch telescope and the appearance of Galileo Galilei’s astronomical treatise, The Starry Messenger.

Early modern news writers and consumers often understood journalistic texts in terms of recent developments in optics and astronomy, Reeves demonstrates, even as many of the first discussions of telescopic phenomena such as planetary satellites, lunar craters, sunspots and comets were conditioned by accounts of current events. She charts how the deployment of particular technologies of vision — the telescope and the camera obscura — were adapted to comply with evolving notions of objectivity, censorship and civic awareness.

The Planet Hunters

Milky way

The Milky Way as seen from a telescope in the Namibian desert. (Photo courtesy of Gáspár Bakos)

From Gáspár Bakos’ desk at Princeton, he can see everything that happens at his telescopes on three continents. He can see wild burros nuzzle at the cables in Chile, warthogs wander by in Namibia, and kangaroos come a bit too close for comfort in Australia.

Despite the risks to his equipment, managing telescopes in three time zones across the Southern Hemisphere has a major advantage: it is always nighttime somewhere, so Bakos’ telescope network can search around the clock for planets outside our solar system, or exoplanets.

Bakos, an assistant professor of astrophysical sciences, is one of several Princeton faculty members involved in finding and studying exoplanets. Some researchers, like Bakos, are searching for the faint dimming of starlight that happens when a planet transits in front of a star. Others are trying to achieve what some have called the Holy Grail of planet hunting: direct imaging of an exoplanet. But detecting a planet is just the beginning. Researchers hope that by studying other solar systems they can confirm theories about how planets form and perhaps even learn whether life exists on these other worlds.

“Princeton is making contributions to the search for exoplanets in a number of areas,” said David Spergel, the Charles A. Young Professor of Astronomy on the Class of 1897 Foundation and chair of the Department of Astrophysical Sciences.

Discover and characterize

Just 20 years ago, finding planets around stars other than our sun was thought to be impossible — they were too far away, too dim and too close to the glare of their star. But today, due to creative strategies and new telescopes, about 1,000 planets have been detected and confirmed, with thousands of candidates awaiting confirmation.

The vast majority of the confirmed planets are quite unlike our own, however. Some are gas giants larger than Jupiter that orbit very close to their star — so close, in fact, that they can make an entire circuit around the star in a few days. Contrast this to our solar system, where Mercury, the closest planet to the sun, has an orbital period of 88 days — that is, it takes 88 days to orbit the sun. Earth makes the journey in 365 days.

The reason we’ve found so many of these large planets, which astronomers have nicknamed hot-Jupiters, is because they are relatively easy to detect with current methods. The two most successful ways of finding planets to date are to look for the periodic dimming of starlight when the planet crosses in front of the star, as Bakos’ telescopes do, or to look for the episodic wobbling of the star in response to the planet’s gravitational pull.

Professor Gáspár Bakos

Professor Gáspár Bakos (Photo by Pal Sari)

Through findings from a space-based NASA telescope known as Kepler, which hunted planets from 2009 until earlier this year, we now know that hot-Jupiters are the exception rather than the norm. “We can detect these hot-Jupiters because they pass in front of their stars fairly often and they block a significant fraction of the starlight,” said Bakos, “not because there are more of them than there are other kinds of planets.”

These other kinds of planets could include ones with conditions capable of supporting life. These planets lie in the “habitable zone” not too close and not too far from their star, and are capable of having liquid water on their surfaces.

One of Bakos’ telescope networks, HATSouth, is looking for exoplanets, including possibly habitable ones. HATSouth can detect planets with orbital periods of 15 to 20 days, which may not seem like much, but for certain classes of stars, namely the mid- to late-M dwarf stars, planets with 15-day periods lie in the habitable zone.       Bakos started building his first HAT — Hungarian made Automated Telescope — in 1999 while a student at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest. The automated telescopes are relatively small — close in size to amateur models — but the lower costs allow more of them to be deployed. An earlier network Bakos built, HATNet, which came online in 2003 and consists of telescopes at sites belonging to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Arizona and Hawaii, has discovered 43 candidate planets.

HATSouth became operational in 2009 and is a collaboration between Princeton University, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Australian National University and Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Originally funded by the National Science Foundation and SAO, the network consists of six robotic instruments located at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, the High Energy Stereoscopic System site in Namibia and Siding Springs Observatory in Australia. To date, HATSouth has detected a handful of planets, and has a dozen candidates awaiting confirmation. So far, all of the planets have fairly short orbital periods — they orbit their stars in one to three days — but Bakos is optimistic about HATSouth and his new project, HATPI, for which he has received funding from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. HATPI is a wide-field camera system that will continuously image the entire night sky at high resolution and precision for five years, with the goal of identifying planets with longer orbital periods. Bakos’ team includes Joel Hartman and Kaloyan Penev, both associate research scholars; Zoltan Csubry, an astronomical software specialist; Waqas Bhatti and Miguel de Val-Borro, both postdoctoral research associates; and Xu (Chelsea) Huang, a graduate student.

Direct imaging

While HATSouth looks for dips in starlight that indicate the presence of a planet, other researchers at Princeton are aiming to directly image exoplanets. Such imaging is possible, for example, when the planet appears on the right or left side of the star rather than directly in front of it. To date, only a handful of exoplanets have been observed this way, because the star’s light is so bright that seeing a nearby planet is like trying to see a speck of dust in the glare of a headlight.

Kasdin

Professor Jeremy Kasdin (Photo by Alexandra Kasdin)

Jeremy Kasdin’s group is working to develop instrumentation for direct imaging. “The idea is to block out the star’s light so that it is possible to see the planet,” said Kasdin, a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering.

Astronomers have used this concept to study the sun since the 1930s: they place a black disc, called a coronagraph, at the center of the telescope’s image to block light from the sun so they can study solar flares on its surface.

For planet-watching however, this light must be blocked with great precision. Because light acts as a wave, it diffracts around the edge of the telescope and, without a coronagraph, creates concentric patterns on the resulting image (see illustration, page 27), just as water makes ripples in a pond when it flows past an obstacle. These patterns obscure the planet.

To eliminate or change these patterns, researchers at Princeton’s High Contrast Imaging Laboratory, led by Kasdin, are developing a coronagraph with a distinctive shape and arrangement of slits that alter the patterns in ways that can permit detection of planets. This “shaped-pupil coronagraph” is being developed by Kasdin and his collaborators Spergel, Edwin Turner, a professor of astrophysical sciences, Michael Littman, a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering, and Robert Vanderbei, a professor of operations research and financial engineering, along with postdoctoral research associates Tyler Groff and Alexis Carlotti and graduate students Elizabeth Jensen and A.J. Eldorado Riggs. The coronagraph could be sent up in a space-based telescope mission under consideration for later in the decade.

Pupil diagramThe Kasdin lab is also working on another light-blocking idea called an occulter. This is a giant sail that could fly in space, ahead of a space-based telescope, to block out light from a star. “It is sort of like holding your hand up to block the sun while you watch a bird in the sky,” said Kasdin. The occulter would be launched folded-up, like a flower bud with petals that would unfold in space to create a shield with a diameter of about 40 meters (131 feet) that would fly about 11,000 kilometers — or roughly 6,800 miles — ahead of the telescope to block the star’s light.

Occulter diagramAt Princeton’s Forrestal Campus three miles from the main campus, graduate student Daniel Sirbu is testing four-inch high models of occulters. The team collaborates closely with NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology where an occulter is being built and tested with the help of engineers at Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin.

Video: How an occulter would unfold in space:

In addition to blocking light, Kasdin’s group is working to improve the technology for correcting faulty imaging caused by the Earth’s atmosphere, as well as heat, vibrations and imperfections in the telescopes themselves. All ground-based telescopes suffer from poor imaging quality due to atmospheric water vapor that is present even on cloudless nights, causing turbulence that makes stars appear to twinkle. Astronomers can correct these distortions using a technology known as adaptive optics which involves bendable mirrors. The Kasdin lab is working on improvements to these systems.

Coronagraphs and adaptive optics already are in use in a handful of telescopes, including the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), in Hawaii. Princeton researchers, including Kasdin and his colleagues, as well as Turner; astrophysical sciences professor Gillian Knapp; Timothy Brandt, a 2013 Ph.D. in astrophysical sciences; and others, are part of an international collaboration led by NAOJ scientist Motohide Tamura that is known as SEEDS (Strategic Explorations of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru).

Kasdin’s group is working on designing an instrument, the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS), to add to the Subaru Telescope to look at the different kinds of light, or spectra, emitted by a planet. Just as a prism splits white light into its rainbow of colors, CHARIS contains prisms and special filters that allow researchers to see the different wavelengths of light. These wavelengths provide signatures that can reveal the planet’s temperature and hint at which atoms and molecules are present around the planet. Graduate student Mary Anne Peters and Groff are working on CHARIS.

“The instrument makes it possible to look at the spectrum at each point in the image,” said Groff, “so you can distinguish the planet light from the star and see whether the planet’s atmosphere is uniform or cloudy, and you can get an idea of age because as the planet gets older, it cools.”

Beyond detection

Detecting exoplanets, whether by watching for their transits or by direct imaging, is just the first step in developing an understanding of these objects, said Adam Burrows, a professor of astrophysics who uses data gathered from these campaigns to construct theories about the characteristics of exoplanets and planetary systems. “Once we’ve detected planets, how do we figure out their makeup, their atmospheric compositions and temperatures, and their climates? These are the kinds of questions we are interested in answering,” Burrows said.

These questions can be addressed only by detecting and interpreting the spectral emissions that will be detected by instruments such as CHARIS, but so far these are only available for large exoplanets. “As larger ground-based telescopes and space-based missions like the James Webb Space Telescope come online,” Burrows said, “we will have data from planets that are closer in size to the Earth. The objects being studied now are but stepping stones toward the broader characterization of the planets in general in the galaxy and in the universe.”

This broader characterization includes ongoing studies by a number of other Princeton researchers, including Markus Janson, a NASA Hubble Postdoctoral Research Fellow in astrophysical sciences, who studies how planets are formed from dust and debris that orbits the star. Other researchers studying planet formation include Roman Rafikov, assistant professor in astrophysical sciences, and Ruobing Dong, who earned his Ph.D. in 2013 while working on the SEEDS project and is now a NASA fellow at the University of California-Berkeley. Emily Rauscher, a NASA Sagan Postdoctoral Fellow in astrophysical sciences, is studying the climate on these faraway worlds.

Many researchers hope that studying exoplanets will help us learn more not only about planetary formation and solar systems but also about whether other planets exist that could support life. The instruments and telescope networks being developed at Princeton could lead the way. And if a wild burro chews on a cable now and then, well, it is part of the cost of learning what lies outside our solar system.

Box: Data mining for planets

Xu (Chelsea) Huang

Xu (Chelsea) Huang (Photo by Keren Fedida)

Data mining for planets Xu (Chelsea) Huang remembers the thrill of finding her first planet. “It was exciting,” said the graduate student in astrophysical sciences. Huang found that planet and many more in 2012 while looking through a publicly available data set from NASA’s space-based Kepler mission, which scans for dips in starlight as the planet crosses in front of the star. Using techniques developed for analyzing HATNet findings under the guidance of Associate Research Scholar Joel Hartman and Assistant Professor Gáspár Bakos, Huang found 150 potential planets — many of which were hot “super-Earths” that are slightly large than Earth but orbiting their host stars much more closely — that the Kepler team and others had missed. The paper was published earlier this year in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomy Society. When the Kepler mission later released an updated list of possible planets, about half the ones that Huang had found were on it.

Box: Forecasting the climate on other worlds

Emily Rauscher

Emily Rauscher, a NASA Sagan Postdoctoral Fellow at Princeton’s Department of Astrophysical Sciences, is modeling the climate on exoplanets. (Photo by Andrew Howard)

Emily Rauscher, a NASA Sagan Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Astrophysical Sciences, said that new acquaintances don’t believe her when she says she does climate modeling for exoplanets. Rauscher uses what is known about our solar system, plus the laws of fluid dynamics and the exoplanets’ orbital period and mass, to try to understand the climate on these faraway worlds. “If you watch a planet throughout its orbit, you can see the change in the amount of light emitted from the planet’s night side versus from its day side,” Rauscher said. “Because it is very hot in the day and very cold at night, we expect winds to blow around the planet, and by measuring the difference in brightness coming from the planet, we can detect how the wind affects the planet’s temperature.” Rauscher is fascinated by the idea of life on other planets but said that there is plenty to discover even on uninhabitable hot-Jupiters. “There is a big push to discover Earth-like planets,” she said, “but there is a lot we can learn from studying the planets we know about already.”

Box: Exploring how planets are formed

Studying exoplanets also could help researchers learn more about how planets are formed from dust and debris that orbits the star, said Markus Janson, a NASA Hubble Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Department of Astrophysical Sciences. Some of the material that doesn’t end up in planets is collected in rings called debris disks, he explained. Our solar system has two such debris disks: an asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter and the Kuiper Belt beyond Neptune.

“Our conventional theory of how planets form— that dust sticks together and forms into planets like Earth, and that sometimes large amounts of gas accumulate onto a rocky core to form gas giants like Jupiter — is based on what we’ve observed in our solar system.” Janson said. “Now we can study other solar systems, so we can test this theory.” A recent study by Janson and colleagues, accepted for publication by The Astrophysical Journal, indicates that the majority of exoplanetary systems probably did form in this manner.

-By Catherine Zandonella

Telescopes take the universe’s temperature

Two telescope projects are measuring cosmic microwave background radiation with the goal of understanding more about the universe’s early history. The telescopes (pictured) are located on a peak in the Atacama Desert in Chile. (Image courtesy of ACT Collaboration)

Two telescope projects are measuring cosmic microwave background radiation with the goal of understanding more about the universe’s early history. The telescopes (pictured) are located on a peak in the Atacama Desert in Chile. (Image courtesy of ACT Collaboration)

Two telescopes on a Chilean mountaintop are poised to tell us much about the universe in its infancy. They are surveying the faint temperature fluctuations left over from the explosive birth of the universe, with the goal of piecing together its early history and understanding how clusters of galaxies evolved.

The telescopes are measuring these temperature fluctuations, known as cosmic microwave background radiation or CMB for short, from their perch 17,000 feet above sea level in Chile’s desolate Atacama Desert, where a dry atmosphere permits radiation to reach Earth with relatively little attenuation. In contrast to backyard telescopes that help us see visible light from stars and planets, these telescopes collect invisible microwave radiation.

Lyman Page

Lyman Page

These invisible waves are mostly uniform but contain slight differences in intensity and polarization that hold a wealth of information for cosmologists, said Lyman Page, the Henry De Wolf Smyth Professor of Physics. Page and Professor of Physics Suzanne Staggs co-lead two telescope projects, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and the Atacama B-mode Search telescope (ABS), which are funded by the National Science Foundation.

“If you imagine the temperature perturbations as a distant mountain range, the peaks and valleys correspond to the temperature variations,” Page said. “By looking at the patterns — the spacing between peaks, and whether they are narrow or fat — we are able to answer questions about the composition and evolution of the universe,” Page said.

ACT, which is about 18 feet across and looks like a giant metal bowl, has already made new discoveries, and confirmed and extended the findings of other CMB surveys, including two space-based telescopes, NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and the European Space Agency’s Planck mission. A new, more sensitive receiver is currently being mounted on the ACT telescope, which is a collaborative effort with David Spergel, Princeton’s Charles A. Young Professor of Astronomy on the Class of 1897 Foundation, along with researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, National Institutes of Standards and Technology, the University of British Columbia, and 10 other institutions contributing significantly to the instruments and analysis.

Suzanne Staggs

Suzanne Staggs

The CMB originated in the hot plasma soon after the Big Bang, which cosmologists consider to be the birth of the universe. As the universe expanded, the radiation propagated, carrying the secrets of the early universe with it. One of the questions is why the CMB on opposite sides of the universe is so similar in temperature. The leading explanation of this observation is the inflation model, which posits that the universe underwent a rapid acceleration of its expansion just after the Big Bang.

This is where the lower-resolution, second telescope comes in. Co-led by Staggs, the ABS is looking for signs of inflation. “Inflation should produce gravitational waves which create patterns in the CMB called ‘B modes,’” said Staggs. B modes are extremely faint — to measure them requires an instrument that can detect temperature changes of just billionths of a degree. To obtain these sensitivities, ABS mirrors, which are relatively small at about two feet across, sit inside a cryogenically cooled barrel.

The two telescopes can be operated remotely, but require frequent trips to the Chilean peak, which often include Princeton students and postdocs. The team at Princeton includes Senior Research Physicist Norm Jarosik, Associate Research Scholar Jonathan Sievers, postdoctoral researchers Matthew Hasselfield, Rénee Hložek, Akito Kusaka and Laura Newburgh, and graduate students Farzan Beroz, Kang Hoon (Steve) Choi, Emily Grace, Colin Hill, Shuay-Pwu (Patty) Ho, Christine Pappas, Lucas Parker, Blake Sherwin, Sara Simon, Katerina Visnjic and Sophie Zhang.

–By Catherine Zandonella

Inventions Bridge the Gap between lab and marketplace

Road trip

A road trip offered Mark Zondlo and his team the opportunity to test their new air quality sensors. (Photo by Lei Tao)

The college experience often involves at least one road trip, but most students do not bring along their faculty adviser. But last spring, two graduate students crammed into a rented Chevy Impala with Professor Mark Zondlo and a postdoctoral researcher to drive eight hours a day across California’s Central Valley, testing their new air-quality sensors, which were strapped to a rooftop ski rack.

The sensors are an example of technologies being developed at Princeton that have the potential to improve quality of life as commercial products or services. Although teaching and research are Princeton’s core missions, the campus is home to a vibrant entrepreneurial spirit, one that can be found among faculty members who are making discoveries that could lead to better medicines as well as students working to turn a dorm-room dream into the next big startup.

“Princeton has a number of initiatives aimed at supporting innovation and technology transfer,” said John Ritter, director of Princeton’s Office of Technology Licensing, which works with University researchers to file invention disclosures and patent applications, and with businesses and investment capitalists to find partners for commercialization. “Our goal is to accelerate the transfer and development of Princeton’s basic research so that society can benefit from these innovations,” he said.

Crossing the valley

One of the ways that Princeton supports this transfer is with programs that help bridge the gap between research and commercialization, a gap that some call the Valley of Death because many promising technologies never make it to the product stage. One such program is the Intellectual Property Accelerator Fund, which provides financial resources for building a prototype or conducting additional testing with the goal of attracting corporate interest or investor financing.

Zondlo, an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering, is one of the researchers using the fund to cross the valley — in this case literally as well as figuratively. Earlier this year, Zondlo and his research team, which consisted of graduate students Kang Sun and David Miller and postdoctoral researcher Lei Tao, tested their air-quality sensor in California’s Central Valley, a major agricultural center that is home to some of the worst air pollution in the nation.

Their goal was to compare the new portable sensors to existing stationary sensors as well as to measurements taken by plane and satellite as part of a larger NASA-funded air-quality monitoring project, DISCOVER-AQ.

One of the new sensors measures nitrous oxide, the worst greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. Nitrous oxide escapes into the air when fertilizers are spread on farm fields. Currently, to measure this gas, workers must collect samples of air in bottles and then take them to a lab for analysis using equipment the size of refrigerators.

Zondlo’s sensor, which is bundled with two others that measure ammonia and carbon monoxide, is portable and can be held in one hand, or strapped to a car roof. “The portability allows measurements to be taken quickly and frequently, which could greatly expand the understanding of how nitrous oxide and other gases are released and how their release can be controlled,” Zondlo said.

The sensors involve firing a type of battery-powered laser, called a quantum cascade laser, through a sample of air, while a detector measures the light absorption to deduce the amount of gas in the air. The researchers replaced bulky calibration equipment, necessary to ensure accurate measurements in the field, with a finger-sized chamber of reference gas against which the sensor’s accuracy can be routinely tested.

The decision to commercialize the sensor arose from the desire to make the device available to air-quality regulators and researchers, Zondlo said. “Our sensor has precision and stability similar to the best sensors on the market today, but at a fraction of the size and power requirements,” said Zondlo, a member of the Mid-Infrared Technologies for Health and the Environment (MIRTHE) center, a multi-institution center funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and headquartered at Princeton. “We are already getting phone calls from people who want to buy it.”

Lighting up the brain — with help from a synthetic liver

Far from the dusty farm roads of California, Princeton faculty member John (Jay) Groves sits in his office in the glass-enclosed Frick Chemistry Laboratory, thinking about the potential uses for a new synthetic enzyme. Modeled on an enzyme isolated from the liver, the synthetic version can carry out reactions that human chemists find difficult to pull off.

One of these reactions involves attaching radioactive fluorine tags to drugs to make them visible using a brain-imaging method known as positron emission tomography (PET) scanning.

PET scans of the radiolabeled drugs could help investigators track experimental medicines in the brain, to see if they are reaching their targets, and could aid in the development of drugs to treat disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and stroke, according to Groves, Princeton’s Hugh Stott Taylor Chair of Chemistry. The synthetic enzyme adds fluorine tags without the toxic and corrosive agents used with radioactive fluorine today.

Groves’ initial work was supported by the NSF, but to develop the technology for use in pharmaceutical research, the Groves team, which includes graduate students Wei Liu and Xiongyi Huang, is receiving funding from a Princeton program aimed at supporting concepts that are risky but have potential for broad impact. The Eric and Wendy Schmidt Transformative Technology Fund was created with a $25 million endowment from Google executive chairman Eric Schmidt, a 1976 alumnus and former trustee, and his wife, Wendy.

“The Schmidt funding is enabling us to explore ways to optimize the chemical reaction and create a prototype of an automated system,” Groves said. “This will allow us to create a rapid and noninvasive way to evaluate drug candidates and observe important metabolites within the human brain.”

Aiding the search for planets

Tyler Groff

Postdoctoral researcher Tyler Groff is creating an improved system for adjusting the blurry images seen through telescopes due to atmospheric turbulence, heat and vibrations. (Photo by Denise Applewhite)

Inspired by the search for planets outside our solar system, Princeton postdoctoral researcher Tyler Groff conceived of a technology that could enhance the quality of images from telescopes. Groff received Schmidt funding to develop a device for controlling the mirrors that telescopes use to correct blurring and distortion caused by atmospheric turbulence, heat and vibrations.

This technology, known as adaptive optics, involves measuring disturbances in the light coming into the telescope and making small deformations to the surface of a mirror in precise ways to correct the image. These deformations are made using an array of mechanical devices, known as actuators, each capable of moving a small area of the flexible reflective surface up or down. But existing actuators are limited in the amount of correction they can provide, and the spaces between the actuators create dimples in the mirror, producing a visible pattern in the resulting images that astronomers call “quilting.”

Groff envisioned replacing the array of rigidly attached actuators with flexible ones made from packets containing iron particles suspended in a liquid, or ferrofluid. Just as iron filings can be moved by waving a magnet over them, applying varying magnetic fields to the ferrofluid changes the shape of the fluid in ways that deform the mirror.

The ferrofluid mirror enables highquality images while being more resistant to vibrations and potentially more power efficient, which will be important for future satellite-based telescopes, said Groff, who works in the laboratory of Jeremy Kasdin, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering. A ferrofluid mirror can also achieve something that a rigid actuator mirror cannot: it can assume a concave or bowl-like shape that aids the focusing of the telescope on objects in space. “A telescope that uses ferrofluid mirrors would be able to see dim objects better,” Groff said, “which would greatly enhance our ability to probe other solar systems.”

From drug discovery to space exploration, Princeton’s dedication to supporting technology transfer and potentially disruptive but high-risk research ideas is yielding tremendous benefits for the advancement of science and the improvement of people’s lives.

Box: From student project to startup

Carlee Joe-Wong (Photo by Steve Schultz)

Carlee Joe-Wong (Photo by Steve Schultz)

In 2009 when Princeton undergraduate Carlee Joe-Wong started working on the technology that would become the DataMi company, she didn’t even own a smartphone. Today, the startup company co-founded by Joe-Wong provides mobile traffic management solutions to wireless Internet providers, and also helps consumers manage their data usage through an app, DataWiz, that has been downloaded by more than 200,000 Apple and Android users.

Joe-Wong became involved in the study of mobile data usage in the spring of her junior year when Professor Mung Chiang challenged her to explore ways that wireless providers could reduce congestion by adjusting their prices based on the variations in network supply and demand. “I mostly just worked on the project in my dorm room,” Joe-Wong said. “I thought it would be cool if it was adopted but I didn’t think that I would be the one helping to make that happen.” After graduation, Joe-Wong became a graduate student working with Chiang on mathematical algorithms that predict the most effective methods for balancing network use across “peak” minutes and “valley” minutes.

“With companies charging $10 per gigabyte, mobile consumers today need to intelligently manage their data,” said Chiang, the Arthur LeGrand Doty Professor of Electrical Engineering. “What the DataWiz app does is tell you when, where and what app used how much of your quota.”

In May 2013 the team, under the engineering leadership of associate research scholar Sangtae Ha, opened an office for DataMi one block off campus. Needless to say, Joe-Wong now has a smartphone.

Taking it to the streets with help from Princeton’s eLab

ELab students

From left: Nathan Haley, Christine Odabashian, Luke Amber and Leif Amber. (Photo by Denise Applewhite)

A love of motorcycles brought them together: three Princeton undergraduates decided to explore building and marketing an electric motorcycle to provide a superior riding experience at significantly lower emissions than gasoline powered models.

The team was one of nine groups selected to participate in the 10-week eLab Summer Accelerator Program, an initiative of the Keller Center in the School of Engineering and Applied Science, which teaches entrepreneurship by offering resources, mentoring and working space.

Throughout the summer, the team members worked on ways to market the bike while simultaneously building a prototype. “We geared the product toward people who enjoy taking weekend trips,” said Nathan Haley, Class of 2014, an economics major.

Haley was joined by Luke Amber, Class of 2015, and Christine Odabashian, Class of 2014, both majors in mechanical and aerospace engineering. The team also included Luke’s older brother, Leif Amber, a graduate student in electrical engineering at Clarkson University.

-By Catherine Zandonella